Asteroid Apophis (Formal designation 99942 Apophis) will be making an extremely close pass to Earth in 2029. The trajectory of Apophis is such that the asteroid will pass through a “keyhole” area of space near Earth, which will cause the asteroid to make a second pass near Earth in 2036.
While the orbital trajectories of the 2029 Apophis encounter with Earth are well known, the details of the 2036 pass are a bit uncertain. Given a window of only seven years between the 2029 and 2036 passes, scientists and engineers will have to work quickly if the chance of a collision between Apophis and Earth is relatively high in 2036.
A recent scientific paper authored by Shengping Gong (Tsinghua University, Beijing) outlines a possible plan of action to divert Apophis.
Given that orbital keyholes are only a few hundred meters wide, the team believes a very small deflection relatively soon would cause Apophis to avoid the keyhole and a second close encounter with Earth.
Aside from sending Bruce Willis and Ben Affleck on a Space Shuttle to blow up Apophis, there are numerous methods that could be used to deflect an incoming asteroid. Some methods border on science-fiction and others are quite ingenious.
Scientists and engineers have suggested placing probes in orbit around Apophis to “steal” its momentum, others have suggested “painting” part of an incoming asteroid a different color to take advantage of solar radiation, and some have suggested the equivalent of a tugboat in space to tow the asteroid. One other method, which is the method suggested by Gong and team, is to use a solar sail to place a small spacecraft on a collision course with Apophis. If the impact velocity is around 90km/s there should be enough energy to move Apophis enough to alter its trajectory.
No single method to divert an asteroid is perfect, as each of the methods have differing advantages and drawbacks. Based on the calculations presented in Gong’s paper, the main advantage of their proposed plan is that a 10 kg sail colliding with Apophis in 2028 ( a year before the 2029 encounter), would deflect it enough to prevent a second encounter between Apophis and Earth in 2036.
One of the major drawbacks to Gong’s plan is that much like a hot-air balloon or a sailing ship, using a solar sail to place a spacecraft on a collision course with Apophis is fairly risky. The solar wind has variations that could send a craft off-course. One other issue is that a very large sail would be require, which could be easily damaged, or could malfunction.
Another possible issue with Gong’s plan is that the physical properties of Apophis are relatively unknown. Sending an object on a collision course with the asteroid could have consequences if the asteroid breaks apart instead of having its trajectory slightly adjusted. There are also questions of whether or not tweaking the trajectory of Apophis could still end up causing a collision with Earth.
In short, there are many techniques that could be used, if the need arises to alter the trajectory of an incoming asteroid. Each technique has benefits and drawbacks which need to be weighed against what, if any, benefits there would be to altering the trajectory of an incoming asteroid.
If you’d like to learn more about Apophis, visit NASA’s Near Earth Object Program at: http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/apophis/
You can read the full paper at: http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1108/1108.3183.pdf
Shown at center, this image features Earth’s moon, with the limb of Earth transitioning into the troposphere (orange).
The troposphere is the lowest and densest component of Earth’s atmosphere.
The sharp boundary between the orange and blue regions is the tropopause. Silvery-blue noctilucent clouds can also be seen far above Earth’s troposphere.
Check out this YouTube video from Analytical Graphics, Inc. AGI’s animation shows UARS in its current orbit, along with its potential debris area, breakup model and the estimated debris region.
The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) will deorbit sometime during the afternoon of Friday, Sept. 23, Eastern Daylight Time. NASA has reported that the satellite will not be passing over North America during atmospheric re-entry.
If you’d like to learn more about AGI, visit: http://blogs.agi.com/
You can read more about NASA’s Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite mission at: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/uars/index.html
The image above was taken in visible green light with Cassini’s narrow-angle camera on July 29, 2011.
Cassini was at a distance of roughly 1.1 million kilometers from Rhea and 1.8 million kilometers from Enceladus.
The camera view is aimed toward the northern, sunlit side of the rings.
In the image are five of Saturn’s moons:
Janus (179 kilometers in diameter) is on the far left.
Pandora (81 kilometers in diameter) orbits between Saturn’s A and F rings.
Enceladus (504 kilometers in diameter) shines brightly just above center.
Rhea (1,528 kilometers in diameter) Saturn’s second largest moon is at the far right.
Mimas (396 kilometers in diameter) can be seen to the left of Rhea.
Science educator James Drake created this time-lapse video taken from the front of the International Space Station as it orbits at an altitude of 220 miles above our planet. The movie begins over the Pacific Ocean and continues over North and South America before entering daylight near Antarctica.
From the video description, there are many visible cities, countries and landmarks. In order, the video features Vancouver Island, Victoria, Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, San Fransisco, Los Angeles, Phoenix, multiple cities in Texas, New Mexico and Mexico.
Also visible in the movie: The Yucatan Peninsula, lightning over the Pacific Ocean, Guatemala, Panama, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and the Amazon river. Earths ionosphere and some stars can be seen in the video too!
Keep in mind a few things: First, this video is comprised almost entirely from shots of Earth at night, hence all the orange “splotches” of city lights on the surface. Secondly, the ISS takes about 90 minutes to orbit Earth.
The raw data for the video was downloaded from: The Gateway To Astronaut Photography of Earth, and assembled with Virtualdub.
If you’d like to see more of Drake’s work, visit his website at: http://infinity-imagined.tumblr.com/